By Charles Stanish
One of many richest and most complicated civilizations in historical the US advanced round Lake Titicaca in southern Peru and northerly Bolivia. This publication is the 1st finished synthesis of 4 thousand years of prehistory for the full Titicaca quarter. it's a interesting tale of the transition from searching and amassing to early agriculture, to the formation of the Tiwanaku and Pucara civilizations, and to the double conquest of the area, first by way of the strong neighboring Inca within the 15th century and a century later through the Spanish Crown. in line with greater than fifteen years of box learn in Peru and Bolivia, Charles Stanish's e-book brings jointly quite a lot of ethnographic, ancient, and archaeological info, together with fabric that has now not but been released. This landmark paintings brings the author's intimate wisdom of the ethnography and archaeology during this sector to endure on significant theoretical matters in evolutionary anthropology. Stanish offers a huge comparative framework for comparing how those complicated societies built. After giving an outline of the region's archaeology and cultural historical past, he discusses the historical past of archaeological examine within the Titicaca Basin, in addition to its geography, ecology, and ethnography. He then synthesizes the knowledge from six archaeological classes within the Titicaca Basin inside an evolutionary anthropological framework. Titicaca Basin prehistory has lengthy been seen in the course of the lens of first Inca intellectuals and the Spanish kingdom. This ebook demonstrates that the ancestors of the Aymara humans of the Titicaca Basin rivaled the Incas in wealth, sophistication, and cultural genius. The provocative information and interpretations of this e-book also will make us imagine anew concerning the upward thrust and fall of different civilizations all through historical past. 34 b/w photos, 12 line illustrations, 37 maps, 19 tables
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Extra resources for Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia
Redistribution implies the existence of some kind of social or political authority that can accumulate surplus for redistribution. Most cases of redistribution in the ethnographic record are recorded as voluntary, with a larger group willing to give up some surplus wealth to an authority to maintain a mechanism of distribution that avoids social conﬂict. Likewise, most cases of redistribution involve nonsubsistence surplus (Earle 1977, 1997). Reciprocity and redistribution are forms of barter in which values are established by custom.
It is possible that successful household organization over the generations developed as a means to avoid risk. That is, by systematically underutilizing their labor potential, households can increase their labor power in times of stress. ” In the absence of market systems and the ability to store wealth, individuals do not ﬁnd it in their interest to work beyond a certain limit. The reason why Chayanov’s rule holds cross-culturally is less important for this discussion than the empirical fact that it does indeed exist.
Seem not to realize their own economic capacities. Labor power is underused, technological means are not fully engaged, natural resources are left untapped” (Sahlins 1972: 41). Population densities in such societies also are consistently below carrying capacities. Sahlins goes on to argue that underproduction is inherent in economies organized by domestic groups and kinship relations; thus, in essence, he deﬁned the nature of the domestic household across the world as a universal type. ” What is most signiﬁcant about this feature of domestic economies is that it appears to be crossculturally valid in most historical settings, ranging from peasant households in modern nation-states to village households peripheral to, or outside, state control.
Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia by Charles Stanish